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Papal Perspective: A Biblical Analysis
by Roger Oakland

The death of a relative, friend or acquaintance naturally brings an outpouring of emotion, feelings and memories of the past. While we know death is certain, when the day comes, the reality of final separation from life as we know it, becomes a reality that everyone has to face.

I was reminded of this recently when my wife’s mother passed away at the age of 88. Her health had been deteriorating for a number of years. Even though we were expecting she would be passing on soon, when the day came, it was hard to let go.

It was just a few days later that Pope John Paul II died. Of course the world was expecting this would happen. His health had been failing for some time. While I could relate to the emotions many were experiencing, I was amazed to see how people were responding to the death of this man.

Following several days of tribute, it became apparent the whole world seemed to be deifying a man and his accomplishments. While it is customary to honor a person after he or she has died, the comments I was hearing about the pope were quite surprising. This commentary is an attempt to share a biblical perspective with regard to the papal praise that followed the death of John Paul II. After all, the pope was a man, not God. 

Papal Praise

Since the death of Pope John Paul II, papal praise has been unprecedented. Secular and religious leaders from around the world hailed the pope as the greatest human who ever lived. Catholics and non-Catholics were equal in their extravagant tribute to this man.  One young girl I heard being interviewed by CNN summarized the general consensus: “He has done so much good, for so many people from so many religions.”

Following his death, many Catholics stated that now that they were not able to “pray for him, they would begin to pray “to him.” His immediate sainthood was demanded, even at his funeral. 

It is understandable that Catholics would honor their leader. However, I have some serious concerns about statements made by others who know that sainthood is not granted or determined by a church. The Bible makes it clear sainthood is a gift from God, by God’s grace, to all those who know and accept Jesus Christ and the sacrifice He made. In the Bible, all believers are called saints. As Paul wrote:

Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, To the saints who are in Ephesus, and faithful in Christ Jesus. [1]

Pat Robertson’s Tribute

In an article titled “Christian Leaders Remember Pope John Paul,” Pat Robertson, founder of Christian Broadcasting Network commented on the pope’s death by stating:

I am deeply grieved. John Paul II has been the most beloved religious leader of our age -- far surpassing in popular admiration the leader of any faith. I pray for the cardinals of the Catholic Church, that they might have God-given wisdom in selecting the successor to this great man. Their task will not be easy, but with God all things are possible. [2]

Further the article stated:

Robertson described the pope as a man of "great warmth, profound understanding, deep spirituality, and indefatigable vigor" whose personal magnetism brought all Christians together in new bonds of mutual understanding. [3]

Pentecostals Praise Pope

In an article titled “Protestants Laud Pope for Ecumenical and Social Stands,” Christianity Today reported:

Bishop J. Delano Ellis, president of the Joint College of African-American Pentecostal Bishops, visited the Vatican several times during John Paul's papacy and called him a man of prayer and deep devotion. “But he's also a pope that has reached out … as far as he could afford to reach," Ellis told Religion News Service. "He's reached out to other faith groups in an effort to create a sense of peace between us."

Whether up close or from a distance, Protestant leaders of a variety of stripes recalled the pope's efforts on topics of mutual agreement and credit him with a legacy that advanced ecumenism. Mainline and evangelical, black and white, these representatives of a separate branch of Christianity noted their ties to the world's most famous Catholic.

"We stood there, talked for about five minutes about the Pentecostal community in America and throughout the world, and I told him we thanked God for his openness and his willingness to at least acknowledge our coexistence with our Roman brothers and sisters," recalled Ellis, who also is senior pastor of the Pentecostal Church of Christ in Cleveland, about his first visit with the pope in 1991. [4]

Billy Graham’s Tribute

Billy Graham was interviewed by Larry King on CNN the day after the pope died. The following is a portion of the transcript from this interview:

KING: And we begin by phone with Reverend Billy Graham, chairman of the board of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association who, in his statement, said that this pope was the most influential voice for morality and peace in the world in the last 100 years. Reverend Graham, you want to expand on that, "the most important voice"?


GRAHAM: Yes. I had the privilege of seeing the pope on several occasions at the Vatican. And tonight, I have a very strange feeling of loss. I almost feel as though one of my family members has gone. I loved him very much and had the opportunity of discussing so many things with him. And we wrote each other several times during the years.

KING: Did he actually say to you once, "We are brothers"?


GRAHAM: That's correct. He certainly did. He held my hand the first time that I met him about 19 -- he'd just been pope for two years when I saw him first. Because when he was elevated to the papacy, I was preaching in his cathedral in Krakow that very day. And we had thousands of people in the streets. And watching the television today of Krakow has brought back many memories.

KING: You said that he was an evangelist.

GRAHAM: He was, indeed. He traveled throughout the world to bring his Christian message to the world. And we see tonight the outpouring from the world that he touched. And I think he touched almost everybody in the whole world.


KING: There is no question in your mind that he is with God now?

GRAHAM: Oh, no. There may be a question about my own, but I don't think Cardinal Wojtyla, or the pope -- I think he's with the Lord, because he believed. He believed in the cross. That was his focus throughout his ministry, the cross, no matter if you were talking to him from personal issue or an ethical problem, he felt that  the answer to all of our problems, the cross and the resurrection. And he was a strong believer. [5]


What Did Billy Graham Say?

The above interview transcript with Billy Graham contains a number of statements that seem to be confusing and misleading. After reading the CNN transcript I decided to contact the Billy Graham Association to clarify the transcript and find out if Reverend Graham had been misquoted. This is what I wrote:

Dear Sirs:


I have just read the transcript of the interview with Reverend Billy Graham and Larry King that occurred on April 3, 2005 on CNN. There are several statements that Reverend Graham made (according to the transcript) that trouble me from a biblical perspective.


One, Mr. Graham indicated he was certain the pope was saved, but he was not certain of his own salvation. Two, Mr. Graham indicated the pope’s focus was on the cross. What did he mean by this statement?


Sincerely in Christ,


Roger Oakland

Understand The Times [6]

The following day I received an e-mail response to my question from Jamie Andrews,
Administrative Services Supervisor
with the Billy Graham Association. Following is the letter he sent to me to clarify my concerns:

Dear Roger,

Thank you for the concern that you expressed following Mr. Graham's
brief comments by telephone on Larry King Live recently.

Billy Graham is absolutely certain that he will be going to Heaven
because Jesus Christ died on the cross in his place, and rose again from
the dead, as we have recently celebrated at Easter.  Through more than
sixty years, Mr. Graham has publicly preached that Good News, written
about it in his many books, and shared that truth in numerous interviews
as well as privately with individuals.  Unfortunately, in the brief
moments of an interview, especially over the speaker phone when it is
very difficult for Mr. Graham to hear and to think quickly, it is easy
for comments to come out the wrong way with no opportunity to correct

In trying to show respect for the late Pope John Paul II, Mr. Graham's
humble comment certainly left the impression that he might not be sure
he would himself go to Heaven.  However, we can assure you that there is
no doubt in Mr. Graham's mind of his destination when God calls him

We are all unworthy to come into the presence of the Almighty God
because of our sin, yet our Savior has ensured that each of us who have
accepted the salvation He offers through His Son, Jesus Christ, will go
to Heaven-and it is on that promise that Billy Graham's soul rests.

Thank you for your interest and support.


Jamie Andrews
Administrative Services Supervisor
Billy Graham Evangelistic Association

The response by Jamie Andrews to my inquiry was prompt and well worded. However, only the first part of my question was addressed. Following is the letter I drafted and sent to Jamie Andrews asking for further clarification:

Dear Jamie,


Thank you very much for responding to my concerns with regard to the Billy Graham interview with Larry King. I appreciate your clarification that Mr. Graham is not uncertain of his own personal salvation. I assumed this was the case, of course. Mr. Graham has faithfully and effectively proclaimed the gospel of Jesus Christ boldly and clearly over the many years he has been an evangelist.


However, there is still a very significant question that needs to be addressed with regard to what Mr. Graham stated in the interview. According to the CNN transcript:


KING: There is no question in your mind that he is with God now?

GRAHAM: Oh, no. There may be a question about my own, but I don't think Cardinal Wojtyla, or the pope -- I think he's with the Lord, because he believed. He believed in the cross. That was his focus throughout his ministry, the cross, no matter if you were talking to him from personal issue or an ethical problem, he felt that there was the answer to all of our problems, the cross and the resurrection. And he was a strong believer. [8]


It is the latter part of the statement that Mr. Graham made that needs clarification. Does Mr. Graham actually believe that the pope believes the same gospel that Mr. Graham preaches - the finished work of the cross?


If so, certainly you are aware this is not what the Roman Catholic Church teaches or Pope John Paul II taught. The Roman Catholic Church requires that Jesus Christ be re-sacrificed at each mass. So when the pope speaks of the "cross" he is not speaking of the same cross that Mr. Graham is speaking about.


As you can understand this is a very serious issue and very confusing and misleading in light of what Mr. Graham stated. In this present age of spiritual deception, it would be appropriate for the Billy Graham Association to make a public statement clarifying that the Catholic cross is a different cross than the cross Mr. Graham preaches. Otherwise, I am concerned many people who respect Mr. Graham and his ministry will be confused into believing the Roman Catholic gospel is the same gospel that the Billy Graham Association promotes.


Sincerely in Christ,


Roger Oakland

Understand The Times [9]

Pope John Paul II and the Cross

At the time of publishing this article, Jamie Andrews, (nor anyone else from the Billy Graham Association), has contacted me. Some who are reading this article may be confused. Why would there be any difference between the pope’s view of the cross and the message of the cross that Reverend Graham has preached for over sixty years, someone might ask? Isn’t the cross, the cross?

In order to answer this question, let’s examine the facts. The pope died during the Year of the Eucharist (October 2004 – October 2005). It was Pope John Paul who proclaimed the Year of the Eucharist. The pope’s objective for doing this was to challenge the faithful to focus on the Jesus who is still on the cross - the Eucharistic Jesus.

This Eucharistic Jesus is the Catholic Jesus whose presence supposedly appears following the consecration of the bread, and then is offered as an unbloody sacrifice. This is called the Blessed Sacrament. Only Roman Catholics can receive the Blessed Sacrament. Further, transubstantiation requires a Roman Catholic priest. It is apparent then, that this Roman Catholic Jesus is not the same Jesus who said “It is finished” when He died upon the cross.

It can also be documented that at the International Eucharistic Congress held in Rome in June of 2000, Pope John Paul called for a missionary vision for the Catholic Church to be centered on the Eucharistic Jesus. At that time the pope stated:

May the International Eucharistic Congress, through the intercession of Mary, Mother of the Christ offered in sacrifice for us, help to make believers more conscious of the missionary responsibility that stems from their participation in the Eucharist. The “Body given” and the “Blood poured out” (cf. Lk 22: 19-20) are the highest criterion they must always use in giving themselves for the world’s salvation. [10]

Then, on April 17, 2005, Pope John Paul published his “Ecclesia de Eucharistia,” which explained that the Roman Catholic Church was required to address the challenge of the “new evangelization” by entering into a “profound relationship with Christ in the sacrament that makes his presence real.” [11]

Finally, a news item published following the pope’s death confirms the cross that Pope John Paul understood. In an article titled "Dying pope taught staff valuable lessons, top aide says," Argentine Archbishop Sandri, an aide to the pope, stated:

“Those who were able to share the daily activity of the pope were witnesses to his profound love for the Eucharist," he said. "Before making important decisions, he usually would spend long periods of time before the Blessed Sacrament in his private chapel, bringing with him the dossiers to examine.” [12]

There are many professing Christians who do not recognize the difference between the Roman Catholic Jesus and the Jesus of the Bible. The Roman Catholic Jesus is the Eucharistic Jesus (also called the Blessed Sacrament). This “Jesus” requires a priest to conjure up the presence of Jesus by the process of transubstantiation.

The Jesus the pope proclaimed, of course was the Roman Catholic Jesus. It is absolutely clear, based on the facts that Pope John Paul did not believe salvation was completed by the death of Jesus on the cross. His goal was to win the world to this Roman Catholic Jesus.

Mary’s Pope

While Billy Graham claimed that Pope John Paul’s focus was the “cross” it can be documented this was not the case. His focus was on “Mary”. The insignia of “M” was placed on his coffin. The “M” was for “Mary” not Jesus.

U. S. News reporter Jeffrey Sheler, wrote an article after the pope died titledTeachings, Example Led to Renewed Devotion for Virgin Mary.” In this article he documented the pope’s Marian emphasis. He wrote:

As a motherless child in Poland, Karol Wojtyla would often find comfort kneeling in prayer before the imposing image of the Virgin Mary in his parish church in Wadowice. As a young priest and bishop in Krakow, he deepened his devotion to the Blessed Virgin, making frequent pilgrimages to popular Marian shrines throughout his homeland and choosing as his life’s motto Totus Tuus (“wholly yours”) in dedication to the Madonna. Throughout his pontificate, John Paul II demonstrated a personal commitment to Marian piety unsurpassed in the modern papacy. By his pastoral teachings and personal example, he led a worldwide renewal of Catholic devotion to the one he venerated as “Mother of God” and “Mother of the Church,” if not a co-equal to Christ, then at the very least a providentially appointed participant in the divine plan of redemption. [13]

Throughout his papacy, Pope John Paul II continually drew attention to “Mary”. No other pope in history was ever called “Mary’s Pope.” Pope John Paul II was. On several occasions he honored “Mary” without biblical precedent. For example, on October 9, 2000, the pope brought the image of “Our Lady of Fatima” to St. Peter’s Square. There in front of 1500 cardinals and bishops, he declared the third millennium to be “Mary’s Millennium” as part of Catholic Jubilee celebrations.

Or consider more factual documentation by journalist Jeffrey Sheler:

John Paul proclaimed October 2002 to October 2003 “The Year of the Rosary,” and, in an apostolic letter, appealed to Catholics throughout the world to rediscover its spiritual richness. “Through the rosary,” he wrote, “the faithful receive abundant grace, as though from the very hands of the Mother of the Redeemer … Today I willingly entrust to the power of this prayer the cause of peace in the world and the cause of the family.” [14]

Another sign of a Marian renewal during John Paul’s reign was the heightened interest at the highest levels of the church in apparitions of Mary and in historic shrines, such as those at Lourdes in France, Fatima in Portugal and Guadalupe in Mexico, where Mary was said to have appeared in modern times and performed miracles. As a young person, he had made many pilgrimages to Jasna Gora, the shrine of Our Lady of Czestochowa, also known as the Black Madonna.

Pope John Paul II was fascinated with “Our Lady of Fatima”. As previously stated, he believed that “Mary” had saved him from the assassin’s bullet in May of 1981, because the assassination attempt took place on the anniversary of the supposed Fatima apparition, May 13, 1917. Later, he placed one of the bullets that struck him in the crown of the statue of Our Lady of Fatima in Portugal. On numerous occasions he traveled to Fatima to be there on the anniversary date to hold mass and honor “Our Lady.”

The Eucharistic-Marian Pope

The facts clearly reveal that Pope John Paul II was “Eucharistic” and “Marian.” It is also a fact that he linked the two – he believed that “Mary” was the mother of the Eucharistic Jesus and wrote an encyclical to endorse and promote this.

On April 17, 2003, Zenit  (News Agency from Rome) published a news item titled “Mary Has a Place in Latest Encyclical: Pope Describes Her as a ‘Woman of the Eucharist.’” [15] The article began the following way: “The last chapter of John Paul’s encyclical ‘Ecclesia de Eucharistia’ is dedicated to the Virgin Mary—a surprise in a document dedicated to the Blessed Sacrament.” [16]

Then this interesting statement from the pope’s 14th encyclical: “If the Church and the Eucharist are inseparably united, the same ought to be said of Mary and the Eucharist.” [17] Laying a foundation for the Catholic Church that is not found anywhere in Scripture, Zenit quoted the pope:

The relationship between the Virgin Mary and the Eucharist is explained by referring to the “Eucharistic faith” that Mary already practiced “even before the institution of the Eucharist, by the very fact that she offered her virginal womb for the incarnation of God’s Word.” [18]  

The article then concluded with another profound statement made by the pope:

“Mary is present with the Church and as Mother of the Church, at each of our celebrations of the Eucharist. Mary Most Holy, in whom the Eucharistic mystery shows itself more than in anyone else, as mystery of light.” [19]  

Think about the implications of this statement! According to the head of the Roman Catholic Church, when the ordained priest consecrates the wafer during Mass, not only does “Jesus” appear, but the mother of “Jesus” also shows up. Of course, those who have read the Bible know that only God is omnipresent.

However, it can be documented that such an idea was not unique. Previous to the pope’s announcement, so-called apparitional Marian messages had been reported. For example:

Dear children, I am especially grateful that you are here tonight. Adore unceasingly the Most Blessed Sacrament of the altar. Know that I am always present when the faithful are adoring. [20]

Finally, a prayer Pope John Paul prayed while he was in Poland in August of 2002 confirms his devotion to “Mary”:

Most Holy Mother. Our Lady of Calvary, attain also for me strength in body and spirit, that I may carry out to the end the mission given me by the risen Lord. To you I give all the fruits of my ministry. To you I entrust the future of the Church, to you I offer my nation, in you do I trust and once more to you I declare: Totus tuus Maria. [21]  

An Ecumenical Pope

It can also be documented that Marian apparitional messages have an ecumenical theme. For example, consider the following so-called message from “Mary”:  

All the messages come from God and everywhere that I am appearing, I am speaking about the same things, because through the triumph of the Eucharist the Mother wants all the Churches to be reunited, so that there will be only one Church for all the people. [22]

Of course, Pope John Paul II was ecumenical, Marian and believed the Eucharist was the focus for world evangelization. But, did he really believe that someday there would be only “one Church for all the people” as the above Marian message proclaimed.

We know that he was very active in bringing various religions together for the cause of peace. For example, he hosted two summits for peace in Assisi, Italy, one in October of 1986 and the second following “9-1-1”, January of 2002. These conferences were attended by Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, shamans, witch doctors, American Indians, Jews, Muslims, Sikhs, Jianists, tribal religions, Confucians, Zoroastrians, Catholics, Baptists, Lutherans, Quakers, Mennonites and Orthodox Christians.

Further, he held out his hand to Islam like no other pope. As news reporter Tom Perry stated in his article “Muslim’s Herald Pope’s Efforts to Build Ties with Islam:”

Muslims around the world on Sunday praised the late Pope John Paul's drive to build bridges with Islam, saying his compassion and leadership changed their view of the Catholic Church. The Pope led a campaign over the past two decades to help turn conflict between the world's 1.1 billion Catholics and 1.2 billion Muslims into cooperation and visiting Syria in 2001 he became the first Pope officially to set foot in a mosque.

Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas called the Pope "a great religious figure who devoted his life to defending the values of peace, freedom, justice and equality for all races and religions, as well as our people's right to independence." Afghan President Hosni Mubarak of predominantly Sunni Muslim Egypt praised the Pope's "long journey of giving, during which he remained a symbol of love and peace and one who called for dialogue between religions." [23]

One of the pope’s best friends was the Dalai Lama, a man who many believe has attained godhood. The Dalai Lama visited the pope on several occasions at the Vatican. As well, these two men had a special adoration for “Our Lady of Fatima” who they believed played a role in bringing peace to the world.

A Biblical Perspective

Perhaps by now, if you have read through this article, it has become apparent that Pope John Paul embraced a number of ideas that are not biblical. Of course, Roman Catholics argue that not everything Christian is found in the Bible. Church tradition and dogma accepted and promoted by inspired leaders of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in the past can also provide valid beliefs and practices that are equally as important as the Bible, the Roman Catholic Church teaches.

Of course it is expected that in their efforts to pay tribute to the pope, diplomats, world leaders and secular reporters would ignore the pope’s extra-biblical ideas. However, this article has been written to provide a papal perspective by using the Bible as a guide. The Bible states that Christians are obligated to defend “the faith.” [24] The inspired Scriptures have been given to us by God to correct and redirect us when we stray from biblical parameters. [25] Whether Protestant or Catholic, when statements are made by leaders that are contradictory to the Scriptures, the Bible is always right.

While I realize addressing the issue of papal error is not religiously correct, I am compelled to do what the Bible tells me to do. I also realize there will be those who read this article and become upset with the facts that have been presented. However, the truth must be told, whatever the cost.

While evangelical Bible-believing Christians praised the pope, calling him a brother in Christ, it should be pointed out that the Roman Catholic Church teaches that those who are outside of the Roman Catholic Church cannot be saved. As Rev. William J. Cogan stated in “A Catechism for Adults,” (Imprimatur: Samuel Cardinal Stritch, Archbishop of Chicago) in answer to the question, “Will I not be saved by accepting Jesus as my personal Savior?” --

No, I will not be saved by accepting Jesus as my personal Savior, or merely believing in Him. In order to be saved, I must be baptized in the Catholic Church, belong to the One True Church established by Jesus, obey the Ten Commandments, receive the Sacraments, pray, do good works and die with no mortal sin on my soul.[26]

Further, Rev. Cogan, in this same book in response to the question “Has the Catholic Church ever changed its teaching and could the Catholic Church ever teach error?” stated:

No, in the 2000 years of its history, the Catholic Church has taught without change the same things taught by Jesus. No the Catholic Church could never teach error, because it is the only church Jesus promised to protect from error. [27]

The death of the pope should have been an opportunity to focus on the Jesus of the Bible, not to exalt a man who is the head of the Roman Catholic Church. The pope was the leader of approximately 1.1 billion people who profess to be Christian, but the Christianity he represented lacks the endorsement of the scriptures.

Following are some Scriptures to point souls to truth.

Jesus said to him, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me” (John 14:6).


“Sirs, what must I do to be saved?” So they said, “Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved, you and your household” (Acts 16:30-31).


For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, not of works, lest anyone should boast (Ephesians 2:8-9).


But this Man, after He had offered one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of God, from that time waiting till His enemies are made His footstool. For by one offering He has perfected forever those who are being sanctified…there is no longer an offering for sin (Hebrews 10:12-14, 18).


God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, has in these last days spoken to us by His Son (Hebrews 1:1-2).


All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work (2 Timothy 3:16-17).


But why do you call Me “Lord, Lord,” and do not do the things which I say? (Luke


I trust that reasonable people who love God’s Word, will recognize we are living at a time of great deception. Now is the time to focus on Jesus and His Word. If we do not, it is a certainty we will be deceived.

[1] Ephesians 1:1

[2] Jenni Parker, “Christian Leaders Remember Pope John Paul II, Laud His Legacy,” Online posting:, April 4, 2005.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Adele Banks, “Protestants Laud Pope for Ecumenical and Social Stands,” Online posting:, April 4, 2005.

[5] CNN Larry King Live, “A Look At Legacy of Pope John Paul,” Online posting: II, Aired April 2, 2005.

[6] E-mail from Roger Oakland to Billy Graham Association, April 10, 2005.

[7] E-mail from Billy Graham Association to Roger Oakland, April 11, 2005.

[8] CNN Larry King Live, “A Look At Legacy of Pope John Paul,” Online posting: II, Aired April 2, 2005.

[9] E-mail from Roger Oakland to Billy Graham Association, April 12, 2005.

[10] L’Osservatore Romano, June 28, 2000, Online posting, July 3, 2000. 

[11] “Why the Pope would Write and Encyclical on the Eucharist: To Rekindle Amazement,” Zenit: The World Seen From Rome, cited April 17, 2003, online posting:

[12] Cindy Wooden, "Dying pope taught staff valuable lessons, top aide says,” Online posting:, April 13, 2005.

[13] Jeffrey Sheler, “Teachings, Example Led to Renewed Devotion for Virgin Mary,” U.S. News and World Report, Online posting:, April 3, 2005.

[14] Ibid.


[16] Ibid.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Richard J. Beyer, Medjugorje Day By Day, Notre Dame, IN, Ave Maria Press, July 18th meditation. Message from Our Lady of Medjugorje given on March 15, 1984.

[21] Zenit News, “Pope Entrusts His Mission to Mary,” Online posting:, August 19, 2002.

[22] “Apparitions of Our Lady and Eucharistic Miracles in Rome,” Online posting:, January 23, 2000. Message given on Feb., 16, 1997.

[23] Tom Perry, “Muslim’s Herald Pope’s Efforts to Build Ties With Islam”, Online posting:, April 3, 2005.

[24] Jude 3

[25] 2 Timothy 3:16

[26] Rev. William J. Cogan, “A Catechism for Adults,” The D. Farrell Co, Imprimatur: Samuel Cardinal Stritch, Archbishop of Chicago, November 2, 1951.

[27] Ibid. [emphasis in original]



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